Playground Safety

Jaci, play ground safety

Photo source: Jaci Foged

Time to put the winter coats, sleds and ice skates away for next winter. The weather is starting to warm up, which means we get to spend MORE time outside with our children. Zoos, parks and playgrounds — here we come!

I was born in the ’80s; we had big hair, loud clothes and playground equipment that has since been removed for safety reasons. Did a fond memory just pop into your head? Anyone remember a 12–15 foot tall metal slide with a bump in the center? Not only did the bump send you flying, but the sun warmed up the surface of the slide so it was sometimes too hot to touch! What about a merry-go-round?

These were popular back in my day; you could get going so fast the motion could throw you right off ! And what about being the kid who spun the merry-go-round? How many of you ended up being dragged when you lost your footing? Yes, there is a reason playgrounds look differently today than they did over 20 years ago.

Safety

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention finds that emergency departments still see more than 20,000 children, ages 14 and younger, for play-ground-related traumatic brain injuries each year. The National Safety Council (NSC) states that nearly 80 percent of playground injuries are caused by falls.

The top equipment associated with injuries includes: climbers, swings, slides and overhead ladders. Some unnecessary risks can mitigate using the SAFE guidelines later discussed in this article. But, there is a healthy degree of risk necessary for learning and development.

Worth the Risk?

The opportunity for “risky play” is not without benefit. In the early years, children should have numerous and varied opportunities to assess risk and manage situations. Very young children assess and take risks daily, which ultimately leads to new learning.

Think about a child learning to walk. At first they need substantial support, from us and the furniture around them. But gradually, they make small changes to their posture and the speed at which they move. Sure, they fall down a lot before they master it fully, but with practice comes skill.

The same goes for risky play on playground equipment, or just playing outside in general. Children are not only learning how to move their bodies to be successful, which develops skills and coordination, they are also learning about success and failure.

Risky play also ignites motivation. We want our children to be motivated — to strive for success, make adjustments and try repeatedly. Giving it their all, and finding success or failure, will also teach them their limits. Research shows us children who do not engage in risky play may have poor balance, appear to be clumsy and even feel uncomfortable in their own bodies.

The Adults Role

Adults do play a part. Our children need us to be there to cheer them on, give them a thumbs up and offer support as needed. We need to take them to parks and playgrounds that offer play movements which are often associated with risk. These include swinging, hanging, sliding and rolling. We also need to educate ourselves on which equipment is developmentally appropriate for your child’s age and personal development.

The National Program for Playground Safety (NPPS) provides us with the acronym S.A.F.E. as a way to remember the four contributing factors to properly maintain a safe play-ground atmosphere.

S – Provide proper SUPERVISION of children on playgrounds.

A – Design AGE- APPROPRIATE playgrounds.

F – Provide proper FALL SURFACING under and around playgrounds .

E – Properly maintain playground EQUIPMENT.

National Playground Safety Week was celebrated, April 23–27. Parents, childcare providers, schools and communities planned to take time to focus on their outdoor environments. For childcare providers, you might take some time to see if there is a certified playground inspector in your area. You can find out if there is one near you at http://www.playgroundsafety.org/certified. You can also find a public playground safety checklist on the Consumer Product Safety Commission website at http://bit.ly/playgroundsafetylist.

 Lincoln Journal Star reports Lincoln has 125 parks and 128 miles of trails. Go play!

JACI FOGED, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Katie KRause, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, and Lynn DeVries, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

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Families Weathering the Storms

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In lieu of the recent natural disasters that have impacted Nebraska and neighboring states, I felt compelled to write about my personal experience. Fifteen years ago on May 24, 2004, I saw firsthand how one’s world as you know it can crumble in minutes, without warning.  My family survived the tornado that destroyed our house in rural Clay Center, Nebraska and then went on to destroy the town of Hallam, NE.  I hope to share my experience as a parent, and some advice to our readers.

May 24, 2004 was a lovely summer day, the first day of summer vacation for my children. We were sitting down together at the kitchen table finishing our evening meal, when out of the blue, our power went out for no apparent reason. I got up to clear the table and stack the dishes at the sink. I remember looking out the window to the west, thinking how strange for the power to be out. I told the boys, Trevor age 9, Calvin, age 8, and Chase age 3 to go downstairs to play while I checked the radio. My husband, Terry went outside to look. As soon as I turned on the radio, the warning alerted us that a Tornado was heading our way and to take shelter.

Terry came running into the house and yelled to get to the basement.  We all huddled under a table and I placed nearby sofa cushions around the kids. As we rode out the storm, it sounded like an army with baseball bats were ransacking our house. I looked at Terry and said I think this is going to be really bad. The noise of wind, hail and our house ripping apart lasted for about 15 to 20 min. When the storm was over, water began to pour from the basement ceiling, as the house had been lifted off the foundation and all the water pipes had broken. As we made our way with the boys up the stairs, we were greeted by daylight, the roof of our home had been peeled away. There was debris and insulation everywhere. The bedrooms on the main floor on the southwest side of the house were hit the worse.  If we had been in bed, we may not have survived. To give you an idea of the magnitude of the tornado, there were two old concrete grain silos that stood on the acreage that were totally disintegrated into pieces no larger than a football.

They say, after you have been through a traumatic event, there are things that will trigger emotions perhaps for the rest of your life. I myself do not like that term, however I can attest that each spring and summer season as severe weather threatens, my emotions do resurface all over again. We were blessed to be safe and unharmed, but most of our belongings were destroyed. Thankful that we had each other and a community of family and friends that helped us to weather this storm and come out more resilient than ever.

Looking back, we as parents, did the best we knew how to do to help our boys  feel safe. One of the first questions they had was where we would live now, and if they would have to change schools. I didn’t know the answer, but confidently told them we would make sure we would not have to leave their school and friends. We ended up staying at Terry’s parent’s house 25 miles away, for about a month while trying to sort out what insurance was going to cover, and learning about depreciation of the value of your possessions, even though we had full coverage insurance.

Lessons Learned

This tornado taught me a few things.

After a disaster, it is important to help children to feel safe and to maintain as much consistency as possible.  Our boys had been involved in T-ball at the time and we maintained getting them to practices and games so they could be among their friends. Trevor was a 1st year 4-Her and he had already worked on many projects to take to the fair. Tornadoes can do strange things, but one of the first things I carried out of our house that day in May, was his prize insect collection he had spent most of the spring putting together. The house was destroyed all around it, but miraculously it came out unscathed.  It went to the county fair, and on to State Fair earning top honors.

The second lesson I learned is to take time to find joy in each day.  One of the best days after the storm, while still living at my in-laws came when my sister made a visit.  She brought the boys a box full of water toys, squirt guns and water balloons.  We had the best family water fight ever, I remember  laughing so much that my sides hurt. Don’t lose sight of the joy, even in the middle of chaos.

I also learned that it is important to give children a sense of closure for things that would be no more. We ended up finding a house to rent about 5 miles away from our old house.  As we began to put our new home together, we would take the boys back to the old place to tend to the potatoes and pumpkins that they had planted before the storm. They could see the destruction, but also that not everything was destroyed.

I believe my kids all came out of this storm pretty well adjusted, but I wish I had known about access to resources as a parent to help them through this disaster. I am now an Extension Educator with Nebraska Extension on the Learning Child team. I am very proud of all the wonderful and helpful resources that Extension has made available for families, farmers, and ranchers focused on natural disasters and recovery.  I encourage you to visit our websites, flood.unl.edu and https://child.unl.edu/. Here, you will find many tools to help you prepare for or weather the storm and to help with recovery efforts.  Additionally, if you have preschool age children, you can download this free NebGuide: How to Help Preschoolers Manage Their Emotions after a Disaster.  http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/g2261.pdf

Be prepared I suggest involving your children in creating a disaster preparation kit for your home. Check out this resource for tips on involving your kids in this activity, Lets Pack an Emergency Kit. Having an emergency kit ready will help your child feel safe.  Work together to determine what you need in your kit.

I also recommend having a detailed inventory of your possessions and personal property.  Our insurance agent told us to make a list of everything we lost.  Where do you start?  It would have been helpful if we had an inventory or at least a photo inventory or video of our possessions.  I suggest taking video of your property, opening closets and drawers, room by room, and making a time stamp on the video.  Store this in a safe deposit box and update it annually.

If you are a childcare provider, look for the new course, Emergency Preparedness for Childcare Providers.  I taught this course twice in 2019, and other educators across the state also offer this 6 hour course. You can check with your local Extension office in Nebraska for more information, or search the Early Childhood training calendar https://ecrecords.education.ne.gov/HomePage.aspx.

I hope that this advice is helpful and that you will feel comfortable to seek the resources you need to feel both safe and prepared to face life’s storms.

LYNN DEVRIES, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Jaci Foged, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, and Leanne Manning, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

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The Power of Being Present

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Have you ever tried having a conversation with someone who continues to scroll through their news feed on their phone? Frustrating, isn’t it? Personally, I feel ignored, and I know they are not fully listening to what I have to say. Truthfully, you may deal with this with your own child. However, imagine how they feel when they are trying to tell you something, but you’re stuck staring at the screen on your smartphone. Now, we all do it so don’t feel that bad, but it is something to improve at because important opportunities could be missed.

Humans are social beings and need face-to-face interaction to thrive. Relationships are one of the most important aspects of life, and good ones are built with skills that are formed through face-to-face interactions. Your child learns empathy, communication skills, behavior and emotion control, and how to read nonverbal communication through those encounters. Interpreting body language, facial expressions, and gestures make up the huge portion of our communication that is nonverbal. It takes years for children to understand nonverbal communication and they master it when practicing with you, siblings, or friends. They can’t get that experience of reading people if one, or both of you are consumed by a device.

Now, I’m not saying we need to ditch our digital devices completely. However, it is important to consider how much of our time they are taking up in our life, and when and how we should use them. Being present and off your phone makes for more fulfilling relationships with your child, partner, and friends, and great relationships make for a great life. Besides, you don’t want to possibly miss out on a first step, first word, or any other monumental step in your child’s life. So, put your phone down, be present, and be happy.

Source: Zero to Five by Tracy Cutchlow

LaDonna Werth, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Leanne Manning, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, Lisa Poppe, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, and Lynn DeVries, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

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Chatting With Babies

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Do you feel uneasy about talking with a baby because you fear they can’t understand what you’re saying?  Fear not, as brain research shows us that talking with infants is vital in helping their brains develop, and in learning about language and communication, all before they can really understand the meaning of the words being said.  The more adults speak with infants the more neural connections, or synapses, are formed.  These connections need to be strengthened by repeated exposure to listening to language or else the brain will prune away the unused connections.  Use it or lose it is the phrase to remember.

Here are some ideas for making the most of time spent chatting with an infant:

  • Talk about the baby’s actions as they move. “Oh, I see you are crawling right along.  Soon you will reach me!”
  • Verbalize feelings. Put their feelings into words to help them learn to label what they are feeling and later when they begin to speak to use words to describe their emotions.  “Something has made you angry because you are all red in the face and crying.”  “You look so happy with that big smile on your face.  You really like your stuffed toy don’t you?”
  • Provide guidance to encourage and help babies achieve something. “I can see you want that toy by your blanket.  You can reach out your arm and grab it.”
  • Build positive relationships with the baby. The best way to do this is to use “serve and return” interactions with the child.  When an infant cries, babbles, or coos, you can respond with an action or words that let them know they have been heard.  For example when a baby says, “Baa!” You can repeat that sound “Baa!”  This simple “serve and return” interaction helps build the child’s brain and puts in place a strong base for future learning.
  • Some other tips for building on serve-and-return interactions are to notice what the child is looking at; see facial expressions; offer comfort and hugs when needed; take turns talking being sure to wait for the child to respond, and practice noticing when the child is ready to move on or end the activity.

When you take the time to converse with infants, speaking to them, then stopping to listen to them, and then speaking again, this is demonstrating how communication works.  It also helps parents and providers build strong attachments with infants, something which is crucial for all infants to survive and thrive.  Infants who have at least one strong, secure attachment with a caring adult, will be more successful at building and learning skills that will help them throughout their lives such as self-regulation and academic achievement.

By taking small moments of time throughout the day to chat with your baby, you are building your child’s brain and setting them up for a lifetime of learning and acquiring skills that will help them deal with life’s trials and triumphs.

Sources: extension.org and developingchild.harvard.edu

LEANNE MANNING, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by LaDonna Werth, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, and Jackie Guzman, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

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New Child Passenger Law Takes Effect January 1, 2019

car seat blog

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Did you know car crashes are the leading cause of death for children ages birth to 13?  Car seats and booster seats can provide the protection to keep children safe in the car.  However many parents are not always using the right seat or following all the steps necessary to safely buckle the child in the seat.

What follows are the changes that take effect in the child passenger law on January 1st.

For children ages 0-2:  Children must ride rear-facing up to age 2 or until they reach the upper weight and height limit allowed by the car seat manufacturer.  Infants and toddlers must ride in rear-facing car seats providing the best support for head, neck, and spine.

For children up to age 8:  Children up to age 8 must ride in a correctly installed car seat or booster seat.  Previously this was only required up until age 6.  Also, children up to age 8 must ride in the back seat, as long as there is a back seat equipped with a seat belt and is not already occupied by other children under eight years of age.

For children ages 8-18:  Children must ride secured in a safety belt or child safety seat (booster seat).

For children ages 0-18:  They are prohibited or banned from riding in cargo areas.

Childcare providers:  must transport all children securely in an appropriate federally-approved child safety seat or safety belt.

The violation of this new law carries a $25 fine plus court costs and 1 point is assessed against the operator’s driving record.

Road injuries are the leading cause of preventable deaths and injuries to children in the United States.  Correctly used child safety seats can reduce the risk of death by as much as 71 percent.  Please become informed of this new law and learn how to correctly select and install a child car seat because three out of four car seats are not used or installed correctly.

Parents can get information and assistance on the proper use of child safety seats at Inspection Stations. Inspection Stations are permanent locations. However, most Inspection Stations require you to schedule an appointment.

To locate an inspection station located in Nebraska, click here!

To locate an inspection station located in Nebraska, click here!

If you are a childcare center and need help locating more information on car seat training, click here!

To learn more visit drivesmartne.org and safekids.org.

Source: https://drivesmartne.org/; https://www.safekids.org/safetytips/field_risks/car-seat

LEANNE MANNING, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Linda Reddish, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, and Leslie Crandall, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

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What’s Going On in the World of Early Childhood?

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Early childhood education can be somewhat of a mystery, especially since many people don’t think of it as “education” until children reach elementary school.  Early childhood begins at birth and typically goes all the way until children are age eight or entering the third grade.

Unfortunately, early childhood today is changing more and more in our technologically advanced age.  Education consultant, Rae Pica, has seen several of these changes occurring throughout her years of service since the 1980s.  In her article published in Community Playthings, she lists three things that seem to be recurring areas in need of improvement in early childhood education:

  1. More children are unable to cross the mid-line of the body.
  2. Children don’t know how to play anymore.
  3. Children have no fine motor control.

More children are unable to cross the mid-line of the body.  

Amidst the busy lives of parents all over the world, babies are spending less and less time on their tummies, which is vital in the development of muscles needed to crawl and perform cross-lateral movements.  What parents need to remember is that the body and mind work together.  Children need to practice moving in a variety of ways to gain confidence in their skills.  Pica writes, “what impacts the body’s development impacts the brain’s development, and the sooner we acknowledge that, the better off our children will be.”

Children don’t know how to play anymore. 

Almost every animal on our planet plays at some point or another in their lives.  Play is necessary to learn the skills that are needed to become successful adults.  Educators are reporting that children are simply imitating on-screen characters or are just standing around during free-play time because they are at a loss as to what to do.  With the rise in technology, children are exposed to much more media, thus diminishing the need for imaginative play.  As early childhood educators, it is vital that we facilitate play and give children the time, space and materials to foster imaginative play.

Children have no fine motor control.

This, again, goes back to technology.  Children aren’t getting the same opportunities to utilize crayons, scissors, and other utensils as much as they are given a tablet or digital device to keep them occupied.  Children are also not developing and using large muscles which relates to the development of the small muscles such as those in the hands and fingers.  If large muscles are not developed, it becomes very difficult for small muscles to progress as well.  Children must have the strength and endurance in large muscles in order to begin using fine motor control skills (Buttfield, 2017).  This need stresses the importance of play and practice with a variety of materials and utensils.

Early childhood education is one of the most important times in a child’s life.  Giving them ample opportunities and experiences with open-ended manipulatives can help overcome the above challenges.  For more information on open-ended activities and ideas, check out https://www.communityplaythings.com/resources.

Resources:

Buttfield, J. (2017, April 12). Big muscles make a big difference to fine motor skills. [Blog].  Retrieved from https://childdevelopment.com.au/blog/big-muscles-make-big-difference-fine-motor-skills/.

Education and Child Development Experts – About Rae Pica http://www.raepica.com/education-consultant-rae/.

Pica, R. (2018).  The state of early childhood: Three things that have changed since I became an early childhood consultant.  Community Playthings.  Retrieved from http://www.communityplaythings.com/resources/articles/2018/the-state-of-early-childhood.

SARAH ROBERTS, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Jaci Foged, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, Linda Reddish, Extension Educator, The Learning Child, and Leslie Crandall, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

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To Be A Grandparent

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I am fairly new at this grandparenting thing.   And it has completely taken me by surprise!  I am delighted, thrilled, and absolutely love being a grandparent to my 6 grandchildren.  I love watching them grow, learn, and develop!  I also love observing that my adult children – the moms and dads- have grown and matured into the loving, capable, and understanding parents that they are.

In becoming a grandparent, it’s important to understand that grandparenting isn’t the same thing as parenting.  It is true that, as grandparents, we get to interact with grandchildren on a level that doesn’t require the daily routine and discipline that the parenting roles requires.  This results in a close, loving, and playful bond with the ‘grands’ that can lead to continuity and stability in a child’s life, opportunities to learn and play, and provide a feeling of connectedness.   Grandparents are important in strengthening the family bonds that are so important to children, parents, and grandparents alike.

So, I have learned that, in order to be a ‘good grandparent’, I support the parent’s role; be helpful when possible, totally enjoy being with my grandchildren, and revel in the pure love and joy that they bring to my life!  It’s a great time to be a grandparent!   What do you enjoy most about being a grandparent?

LESLIE CRANDALL EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Lynn DeVries, Extension Educator, The Learning Child and Tasha Wulf, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

 

Laugh Out Loud – Developing Humor in Children

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Something special happens when people laugh together over something genuinely funny and not hurtful to anyone. It’s like a magic, creating the feelings of safety and belonging to a group. It’s important to remember that humor isn’t a science. Humor is intuitive and spontaneous. You can’t really teach people to be funny in an appropriate way. Nor can you train them to laugh on cue. But you can prepare the ground, plant the seeds, and provide opportunities. It is possible to create the kind an environment in which healthy humor has a chance to grow.

Humor appreciation does not appear to have a genetic basis (Martin, 1998) but because the humor response does seem to be an in-born social phenomenon (Chapman, 1973, and 1979) there is evidence that humor can be encouraged and taught. Carson et al. (1986) discuss humor as a function of learned communicative abilities. Positive reinforcement of humor increases its use (Ziv, 1981b – cit. by Nevo et al., 1998).

Humor is really just another form of communication. It’s part of our communication skills set. Children need to be allowed and encouraged to be funny, in his or her own way. Laughter can unite groups. Laughter not only creates a shared experience in the moment, but it also creates a memory to recollect and laugh at over and over.

Humor as children grow

It’s never too early to start developing a child’s sense of humor. Babies’ smiles and laughs are so delightful that we often do this intuitively — smiling, or tickling them many times a day just to hear a chuckle. Babies don’t really understand humor, but they do know when you’re smiling and happy. When you make funny noises or faces and then laugh or smile, the baby is likely to sense your joy and imitate you. He or she is also highly responsive to physical stimuli, like tickling.

Sometime between 9 and 15 months, babies know enough about the world to understand that when you quack like a duck, she’s /he’s doing something unexpected — and that it’s funny.

Toddlers appreciate physical humor especially the kind with an element of surprise (like peek-a-boo). One of the best ways to do this is to spend time every day being receptive to the many opportunities each child gives you to smile or laugh.  As children develop language skills, they’ll find rhymes and nonsense words funny and this continues into the preschool years.

As preschooler explore their world they are more likely to find humor in a picture with something out of whack like a car with square wheels, a pig wearing sunglasses than a joke or pun. Incongruity between pictures and sounds (a horse that says moo) is also funny. As they become more aware of bodily functions, preschoolers often start delighting in bathroom humor. Preschoolers have difficulty determining when using bathroom humor is appropriate, so you might set guidelines for your classroom.

Kindergarteners find basic wordplay, exaggeration, and slapstick funny. They have discovered the pleasure of telling simple jokes especially knock knock…, it is fun to be the one who knows the punchline! Jokes are repeated over and over.  Older grade-schoolers have a better grasp of what words mean and are able to play with them — they like puns, riddles, and other forms of wordplay.  Also, be game enough to laugh so the jokes don’t fall flat.

It’s important to keep encouraging humor development as children grow. When you’re playful and humorous with a child, delighting in silliness and laughter, you help him or her develop a playful and humorous attitude about life. Be spontaneous, playful, and aware of what each child finds funny at different ages.

Tips for teachers

Add humor to your curriculum by starting with a “Funny Day.” By creating a day focusing on humor and you can build on that days experience to build humor into your daily curriculum.  Invite everyone to dress in funny costumes to begin the humor day.  Create a humor-rich environment. Surround the children with funny pictures on the wall, and funny books — for toddlers and preschoolers these include picture books or nonsense rhymes; older kids will love joke books and comics. Also check YouTube for out funny songs, rhymes and finger plays you can teach the children. Create funny games and large motor skills. In your art center have children draw or paint funny pictures of their pets.

The teacher should be the humor model and set the tone for day. One of the best things you can do to develop each child’s sense of humor is to use your own. Tell jokes and stories. Laugh out loud! Take each child’s humor seriously. Encourage the child’s attempts at humor, whether it’s reading (potentially unfunny) jokes from a book or drawing “funny” pictures. Praise your child for trying to be funny.

The more you incorporate humor into your classroom the easier it will be to use.  Make humor a part of your day-to-day interactions with each child and encourage them to share funny observations or reactions.

 

Children’s Books that introduce humor

 Llama Llama Zippity-Zoom by Anna Dewdney

Ernest, the Moose Who Doesn’t Fit by Catherine Rayner

Amazing Cows: Udder Absurdity for Children by Sandra Boynton

Take Me Out of the Bathtub and Other Silly Dilly Songs by Alan Katz

The Adventures of Nanny Piggins by RA Spratt, Dan Santat

Zany and Brainy Good Clean Jokes for Kids by Bob Phillips

 

Resources:

Encouraging Your Child’s Sense of Humor https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/child-humor.html

How to Lighten things up and Laugh more as a Family by Monica Swanson  http://monicaswanson.com/laughter-makes-a-family-better/

3 Reasons to Laugh Together as a Family,   http://forthefamily.org/3-reasons-laugh-together-family/

What’s So Funny? Jan 20, 2010, Jenny Schroede,  http://www.boundless.org/relationships/2010/whats-so-funny

Encouraging Your Child’s Sense of Humor   http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/child-humor.html

Healthy Family Humor, https://www.focusonthefamily.com/

Ages & Stages: Don’t Forget to Laugh! The importance of Humor https://www.scholastic.com/…/ages-stages-dont-forget-laugh-importance-humor/

Humor as a Key to Child Development, Lawrence Kutner, https://psychcentral.com/lib/humor-as-a-key-to-child-development/

Laughter Is Serious Business!  Marie Hartwell-Walker,   https://psychcentral.com/lib/laughter-is-serious-business/

How Children Develop a Sense of Humor May2, 2017, https://psychcentral.com/lib/laughter-is-serious-business2017/

PLAY DEVELOPMENT FROM INFANCY THROUGH LATE CHILDHOOD, http://theconversation.com/how-children-develop-a-sense-of-humour-77028

How children can get jokes from the age of two (but they are only as funny as their parents) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2346271/How-children-jokes-age-funny-parents.html#ixzz56N5Mg8BL

LEE SHERRY, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Lynn DeVries, Extension Educator, The Learning Child and Sarah Roberts, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

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How Dramatic Play Supports Children’s Development

 

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Dramatic play happens when children take on a role and act out a play, a story or act in a video.  When children engage in dramatic play it helps them build social skills, makes them more aware of emotions, and encourages problem solving. As children play and interact in dramatic play, they practice skills in the following areas:

  • Social/emotional: working with others to successfully act out most stories or plays helps children learn to get along with one another to keep the play going
  • Physical: using large and small muscles to put on costumes, manipulate props, and practice eye-hand coordination
  • Cognitive: thinking up and acting out a story requires cognitive ability, organizing and expressing ideas, paying attention to how other people see the world,  and finding creative solutions to challenges
  • Language: asking and answering questions, using language related to a role they are playing, for example, “Did you find everything you were looking for today in our store?”, early literacy and writing skills

Dramatic play is most effective when children come up with the story and decide how it should be acted out.  Adults can help children use the following skills as they act out their plays:

  • Role play: pretending to be someone else
  • Use of props: using objects to expand and enhance pretend play
  • Make-believe: copying the actions of persons from various settings (e.g., waiter, doctor)
  • In-depth play: spending an extended amount of time playing out a theme or idea in dramatic play
  • Interaction: playing cooperatively with others and exchanging ideas about roles and other details
  • Verbal communication: using language skills to act out roles and negotiate play details

adults support dramatic play

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Adults can also help children engage in more complex and extended dramatic play using the following ideas:

  • Model pretend play: Use books, songs, or stories to engage children in using their imagination, such as having children climb a tree, swing on a vine like a monkey, or crawl through a tunnel. Have the children suggest what happens next.
  • Observe children’s play: Pay attention to who is playing, the language being used, and the roles they are acting out. Observing may also give you new ideas for props and dramatic play themes of interest.
  • Participate as a supporting character: If children don’t seem to know what to do next, consider entering their play as a supporting character to give them ideas. If the area is a restaurant, you could sit down at a table and say, “Will someone please take my order?”

Source: eXtension.org

Leanne Manning, EXTENSION EDUCATOR | THE LEARNING CHILD

Peer Reviewed by Sarah Roberts, Extension Educator, The Learning Child and Lisa Poppe, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

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My Potty Party, Personalized Books that Teach

potty training books 1

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Vera is 3 years old and recently started toilet training.  She spends the early mornings at her grandmother’s home before going to preschool.  Her grandma is teaching her to go “tinkle” in the adult sized toilet, puts her in a pull-up, and takes her every 3o minutes to ensure success.  When Vera gets to school her teachers help her change into underwear and go to “the bathroom” in a child-sized toilet open to several other stalls.  By the time she gets home in the evening, her mother rewards her with a star sticker for initiating use of the “potty chair” but still asks Vera to wear a diaper to avoid messes.  Vera is learning one skill in three different settings in three different ways.

Personalized Books That Teach

Toilet training is arguably the most stressful milestone of early childhood.  Complicating this is the fact that in Nebraska, according to the 2016 Kids Count in Nebraska Report, nearly 72% of children aged 0-5 have both parents in the workforce, and the national average is not far behind.  The stress of toilet training can also be extended to child care providers who, due to licensing ratios, may have multiple children in their care toilet training at the same time with little assistance.  The investment of time and stress involved in toilet training is exacerbated when the home and school environments do not have consistent toileting practices.  Using self-modeling in the form of a personalized story book is one approach to teaching the skill of toilet training in a fun and educational way that children and parents will both enjoy.

Toddlerhood is a time of rapid growth and milestones.  These milestones often involve learning new and complex tasks such as sleeping in a bed and toilet training.  While these are exciting new developments, they can also be stressful for young children, families, and teachers.  Even in the best situations, children have multiple adults teaching them the new skill, often in multiple settings, and with varying materials.  Making a personalized book to teach a skill can ease transitions for young children and support families.

Personalized books can be used to teach a skill by uniquely creating a story that teaches a sequence of skills with the child as the main character.  In a personalized book, the child serves as his own model and can see himself be successful from the very start.  Creating a personalized book to teach a new skill accomplishes three main goals important for transitions: using familiar language and terminology, providing a visual image of what success looks like, and maintaining consistency between the home and school environments.

Language and Terminology

When writing the text for the personalized book it may be helpful to keep a children’s book nearby as a guide or imagine yourself talking with the child.  Be sure to write the text in clear, plain language using the family’s preferred terminology.  Gathering input from the family or child care provider will help to identify how the child communicates about the topic at home and school.  This could be the difference in using “potty” or “toilet” or incorporating the correct word used in a child’s native language.  Using specific sequencing words such as “first”, “next”, “then”, and “last” can cue children to the order of the steps and help them remember the sequence.  In the case that a specific reinforcement is used to celebrate a child’s success (such as a high-five, reading an extra book at bedtime, a sticker, or fruit snack) the reward can be written right into the book.  Although it is temping to try to use rhyme, a popular feature of many children’s books, it is best if the message is simple and factual.

Potty Party2

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Visual Image of Success

The old adage, “A picture is worth a thousand words,” has never been more true.  A personalized book provides visual images depicting the child completing each step of the new skill successfully.  Research indicates that children find personalized books more engaging than even their favorite picture books (Kucirkova, 2012).  When a child sees her or himself as the main character of the book it draws their attention to the necessary steps, can increase motivation to achieve, and prompts conversation about the topic.  All three of these benefits can be incredibly helpful for parents beginning toilet training with their child.

Consistency Across Settings

The goal of learning a new skill is to be able to generalize that skill across materials and environments.  However when the skill is being acquired, it can be challenging to learn in multiple environments and with different materials.  For the toilet training child this may mean success at home on a potty chair but difficulties at school with a child-size toilet.  In addition, well-meaning adults often use a variety of terms to communicate about expectations, but this can lead to confusion on the part of the child.  Overall, it can be a challenge for all adults to be on the same page.  A personalized book can quite literally keep everyone on the same page.  For this reason, it is helpful to print multiple copies of the personalized book, one for each home the child resides in and one for school.  This allows one uniform message to be shared in multiple places and serves as a reminder to busy adults about the agreed upon process, how to talk about it with the child, and how to reinforce it.

Online Resources

Of course, the busy lifestyle of today’s parents doesn’t always allow for time to create and write your own personalized book.  Luckily, several online resources are available that streamline the process or do it for you.  Advances in technology have improved and led to innovative ways to integrate children into stories that teach a skill or lesson.  Below are online resources that personalize books to support children not only in potty training but through other early transitions as well.

potty resources

References

Kucirkova, N., Messer, D., & Whitelock, D. (2012). Parents reading with their toddlers : The role of personalization in book engagement.  Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 13(3), 445-470. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468798412438068

Voices for Children. (2016) Kids Count in Nebraska Report. Ralston, NE: Chrissy Tonkinson.

Erin Hamel, MEd, Guest Blogger | THE LEARNING CHILD

Erin holds a masters degree in Special Education and is currently a doctoral student in Child Development at the University of Nebraska – Lincoln. She has a bachelor’s degree in elementary education and is a licensed teacher in the state of Nebraska. Erin began her career teaching internationally and has worked with children of all ability ranges from eighteen months to sixth grade. She is passionate about teacher development, connecting young children to nature, and supporting parents and children.

Peer Reviewed by Lynn DeVries, Extension Educator, The Learning Child and Sarah Roberts, Extension Educator, The Learning Child

Make sure to follow The Learning Child on social media for more research-based early childhood education resources!

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